Waylon Arnold Jennings (pronounced /ˈweɪlən ˈdʒɪnɪnz/; June 15, 1937-February 13, 2002) was an American country music singer, songwriter, and musician. Jennings began playing guitar at 8 and began performing at 12 on KVOW radio. He formed a band, The Texas Longhorns. Jennings worked as a D.J. on KVOW, KDAV, KYTI, and KLLL. In 1958, Buddy Holly arranged Jennings's first recording session, of "Jole Blon" and "When Sin Stops (Love Begins)." Holly hired him to play bass. During the "Winter Dance Party Tour," in Clear Lake, Iowa, Holly chartered a plane to arrive at the next venue. Jennings gave up his seat in the plane to J. P. Richardson, who was suffering from a cold. The flight that carried Holly, Richardson, and Ritchie Valens crashed, on the day later known as The Day the Music Died. Following the accident, Jennings worked as a D.J. in Coolidge, Arizona, and Phoenix. He formed a rockabilly club band, The Waylors. He recorded for independent label Trend Records, A&M Records before succeeding with RCA Victor after achieving creative control of his records. During the 1970s, Jennings joined the Outlaw movement. He released critically acclaimed albums Lonesome, On'ry and Mean and Honky Tonk Heroes, followed by hit albums Dreaming My Dreams and Are You Ready for the Country. In 1976 he released the album Wanted! The Outlaws with Willie Nelson, Tompall Glaser, and Jessi Colter, the first platinum country music album. The success of the album was followed by Ol' Waylon, and the hit song "Luckenbach, Texas, (Back to the Basics of Love)." By the early 1980s, Jennings was struggling with a cocaine addiction, which he quit in 1984. Later he joined the country supergroup The Highwaymen with Nelson, Kris Kristofferson, and Johnny Cash. During that period, Jennings released the successful album Will the Wolf Survive. He toured less after 1997, to spend more time with his family. Between 1999 and 2001, his appearances were limited by health problems. On February 13, 2002, Jennings died from complications of diabetes. Jennings also appeared in movies and television series. He was the narrator for The Dukes of Hazzard; he also composed and sang the show's theme song. In 2001 he was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame, which he chose not to attend until later on. In 2007 he was posthumously awarded the Cliffie Stone Pioneer Award by the Academy of Country Music. Early life edit: Waylon Arnold Jennings was born in Littlefield, Texas, the seat of Lamb County, the son of Lorene Beatrice (née Shipley) and William Albert Jennings. His original birth name was Wayland, meaning land by the highway, but it was changed after a Baptist preacher visited Jennings's parents and congratulated his mother for naming him after the Wayland Baptist University in Plainview, Texas. Lorene Jennings, who had been unaware of the college, changed the spelling to Waylon. Jennings later expressed in his autobiography, "I didn't like Waylon. It sounded corny and hillbilly, but it's been good to me, and I'm pretty well at peace with it right now." When Jennings was 8, his mother taught him to play guitar with the tune Thirty Pieces of Silver. Jennings used to practice with the guitars of his relatives, until his mother bought him a used Stella, and later ordered a Harmony Patrician. Jennings never learned to read music, but he practiced to seek a career in music and avoid a possible future picking cotton and other temporary jobs. Music career edit: Beginnings in music edit: The 12-year-old Jennings auditioned for a spot on KVOW in Littlefield, Texas. Owner J.B. McShan, along with Emil Macha, recorded Jennings's performance. McShan liked his style and hired him for a weekly 30-minute program. Following this successful introduction, Jennings formed his own band. He asked Macha to play bass for him, and gathered other friends and acquaintances to form The Texas Longhorns. The style of the band, a mixture of country and western and bluegrass, was often not well received. At 17, Jennings and band recorded a demo of the songs "Stranger in My Home" and "There'll Be a New Day" at KFYO radio in Lubbock, Texas. In addition to performing on air for KVOW, Jennings later worked as a D.J. for the station. Jennings dropped out of high school in tenth grade to pursue music. His early influences were Bob Wills, Floyd Tillman, Ernest Tubb, Hank Williams, Carl Smith and Elvis Presley. He moved to Lubbock, where he initially worked for KLLL, and later for KDAV; Jennings' show was successful in both venues. While working in KLLL, Jennings met Buddy Holly during the broadcasts of Sunday Party. Holly, who wanted to start in record production, arranged a session for Jennings. On September 10 Jennings recorded the songs "Jole Blon" and "When Sin Stops (Love Begins)" with Holly and Tommy Allsup on guitars with saxophonist King Curtis. The single was released on Brunswick in 1959 with limited success. Holly then hired Jennings to play electric bass for him during his "Winter Dance Party Tour." After a show in Clear Lake, Iowa, Holly chartered a plane for himself, Allsup, and Jennings to avoid a long bus trip to Fargo, North Dakota. Allsup lost a coin toss to Ritchie Valens for his seat on the plane, while Jennings gave up his seat to J. P. Richardson, who was suffering from a cold and complaining about how uncomfortable a long bus trip was for a man of his size. Holly jokingly told Jennings, "I hope your ol' bus freezes up!" Jennings replied, "Well, I hope your ol' plane crashes!" During the early morning hours of February 3, 1959, later known as The Day the Music Died, the charter crashed outside Clear Lake, killing all on board. Jennings and Allsup continued the tour for two more weeks, featuring Jennings as the lead singer. Jennings later admitted that he felt severe guilt and responsibility for the crash, and that his words would haunt him for the rest of his life. He later returned to KLLL and performed regionally, but eventually was fired by Sky Corbin. Subsequently, Jennings worked briefly for KDAV. He released recordings under Trend Records and experienced moderate success with his single, "Another Blue Day." Phoenix and the Nashville Sound edit: Jennings lived briefly in Coolidge, Arizona, in 1961, working in radio before moving to Phoenix, where he formed a rockabilly band, The Waylors. Jennings and his band performed at a newly opened nightspot in Tempe (it was thought at the time that Jennings was part-owner). The band earned a small local fan base, and Jennings eventually signed with the independent label Trend Records. The recordings were not successful, and Jennings began working as a record producer. He moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1963, where he signed a contract with Herb Alpert of A&M Records. His records had little success, because A&M's main releases were folk music rather than country. He had a few hits on local radio in Phoenix, including Ian Tyson's "Four Strong Winds" and "Just To Satisfy You" (co-written with Don Bowman). He also recorded an album on BAT called JD's. After 500 copies were sold at the club, another 500 copies were pressed by the Sounds label. He also played lead guitar for Patsy Montana on a 1964 album. Alpert tried to shift Jennings's style from country to pop, but Jennings refused. After his only single, "Sing the Girl a Song, Bill," Alpert released Jennings. Singer Bobby Bare, who covered Jennings's songs "Four Strong Winds" and "Just To Satisfy You," recommended him to producer Chet Atkins, who signed Jennings to RCA Victor in 1965. On August 21, Jennings made his first appearance on the Billboard's Hot Country Songs chart with "That's the Chance I'll Have to Take." The same year he met and became friends with Willie Nelson, who went to see one of his shows in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1966, Jennings released his debut album for RCA Folk-Country, followed by Leavin' Town, and Nashville Rebel. Nashville rebel was the soundtrack to an independent film of the same name, starring Jennings. The single "Green River" charted on Billboard country singles at number eleven. In 1967 Jennings released a hit single, "Just to Satisfy You." During an interview, Jennings remarked that the song was a "pretty good example" of the influence of his work with Buddy Holly and rockabilly music. During the next years, Jennings produced midchart albums that sold well, including Just to Satisfy You, that included the same-named hit single of 1967. In 1972 Jennings released Ladies Love Outlaws. The single that headlined the album became a hit for Jennings, and was his first approach to Outlaw Country. Jennings was accustomed to performing and recording with his own band, The Waylors, a practice that was not encouraged by powerful Nashville producers. Over time, however, Jennings felt limited by the Nashville sound's lack of artistic freedom. The music style publicized as "Countrypolitan" was characterized by orchestral arrangements, and the absence of traditional country music instruments. The producers did not let Jennings play his own guitar or select material to record. Outlaw Country edit: In an interview, Jennings recalled the restrictions of the Nashville establishment: "They wouldn't let you do anything. You had to dress a certain way: you had to do everything a certain way.... They kept trying to destroy me.... I just went about my business and did things my way.... You start messing with my music, I get mean" In 1972 his recording contract was nearing an end. Hepatitis-afflicted Jennings accepted an offer from Neil Reshen to renegotiate his recording and touring contracts. At a meeting in a Nashville airport, Jennings introduced Reshen to Willie Nelson. By the end of the meeting, Reshen had become manager to both singers. Jennings's new deal gained him a $75,000 advance and artistic control. Reshen advised Jennings to keep the beard that he had grown in the hospital, in order to match the image of outlaw country. By 1973, Nelson had returned to music, finding success with Atlantic Records. Now based in Austin, Texas, Nelson had made inroads into the rock and roll press by attracting a diverse fan base that included the rock music audience. Atlantic Records was now attempting to sign Jennings, but Nelson's rise to popularity persuaded RCA to renegotiate with Jennings before losing another potential success. He followed with Lonesome, On'ry and Mean and Honky Tonk Heroes in 1973, the first albums recorded and released under his creative control. The albums were commercial and critical successes. More hit albums followed, with The Ramblin' Man and This Time, in 1974, and Dreaming My Dreams, in 1975. In 1976, Jennings released Are You Ready for the Country, Jennings wanted the record to be produced by Los Angeles producer Ken Mansfield. Although RCA denied the request, Jennings and The Waylors went to Los Angeles and recorded with Mansfield at his expense. After a month, Jennings presented the master tape to Chet Atkins, who decided to release it. The album hit number one on Billboard's country albums three times the same year, topping the charts for 10 weeks. It was named country album of the year in 1976 by Record World Magazine and it was certified gold by the RIAA. In 1976 Jennings released the album Wanted! The Outlaws, recorded with Willie Nelson, Tompall Glaser, and Jessie Colter for RCA. The album was the first country music album certified platinum. The following year, RCA issued Ol' Waylon, an album that produced a hit duet with Nelson, "Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)." The album Waylon and Willie followed in 1978, producing the hit single "Mammas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys." Jennings released I've Always Been Crazy, also in 1978. The same year, at the peak of his success, Jennings began to feel limited by the outlaw movement. The "outlaw image" restricted the repertoire he could record, as well as the material that audiences expected from him. Jennings referred to the over-exploitation of the image in the song "Don't You Think This Outlaw Bit Has Done Got Out of Hand?", denouncing that the movement had become a "self-fulfilling prophecy." In 1979 he released Greatest Hits, which was certified gold the same year, and in 2002 was certified quintuple platinum. Later years edit: In the mid-1980s, Johnny Cash, Kris Kristofferson, Nelson, and Jennings formed a successful group called The Highwaymen. Aside from his work with The Highwaymen, Jennings' released a gold album WWII (1982) with Willie Nelson. In 1985 Jennings joined with USA for Africa to record "We Are the World," but he left the studio because of a dispute over the song's lyrics that were to be sung in Swahili. Ironically, after Jennings left the session, the idea was dropped at the prompting of Stevie Wonder, who pointed out that Ethiopians did not speak Swahili. By this time, his sales had decreased. After the release of Sweet Mother Texas, Jennings signed with Music Corporation of America. The debut release with the label Will the Wolf Survive (1985) peaked at number one in Billboard's Country albums in 1986. Jennings's initial success tailed off, and in 1990 he signed with Epic Records. His first release, The Eagle, became his final top 10 album. In 1993, in collaboration with Rincom Children's Entertainment, Jennings recorded an album of children's songs, Cowboys, Sisters, Rascals & Dirt, which included "Shooter's Theme," a tribute to his 14-year-old with the theme of "a friend of mine." Despite low record sales, Jennings attracted large audiences in live appearances. In 1997, after the Lollapalooza tour, he decreased his tour schedule and became centered on his family. In 1998, Jennings teamed up with Bare, Jerry Reed, and Mel Tillis to form The Old Dogs. The group recorded a double album of songs penned entirely by Shel Silverstein. In mid-1999, Jennings assembled what he referred to as his "hand-picked dream team" and formed Waylon & The Waymore Blues Band. Consisting primarily of former Waylors, the 13-member group performed a limited number of concerts from 1999 to 2001. In January 2000, Jennings recorded what would become his final album at Nashville's historic Ryman Auditorium, Never Say Die: Live. Music style and image edit: Jennings was characterized by his "powerful" singing voice, noted by his "rough-edged quality," as well as his phrasing and texture. Accompanying his vocals, he played guitar. He was recognized for his "spanky-twang" playing. To create his sound, he used a mixture of thumb and fingers during the rhythmic parts, while using picks for the lead runs. He combined hammer-on and pull-off riffs, with eventual upper-fret double stops and modulation effects. Jennings played a 1953 Fender Telecaster, a used guitar purchased as a gift to him by The Waylors. Jennings's bandmates adorned his guitar with a distinctive leather cover that featured a black background with a white floral work. Jennings did further customizing work on the guitar, by filing down the frets to lower the strings on the neck to obtain the slapping sound. His signature image was characterized by his long hair and beard, as well as his black hat and the black leather vest he wore during his appareances. Personal life edit: In 1997, he stopped touring to be close to his family. To set an example about the importance of education to his son Waylon Albright, Jennings earned a GED. Addiction and recovery edit: Jennings started to consume amphetamines at the time he lived with Johnny Cash during the mid-1960s. Jennings later stated, "Pills were the artificial energy on which Nashville ran around the clock." In 1977, Jennings was arrested by federal agents for conspiracy and possession of cocaine with intent to distribute. A private courier warned the Drug Enforcement Administration about the package sent to Jennings by a New York colleague that contained 27 grams of cocaine. The DEA and the police went to Jennings's recording studio. They found no evidence, because while they were waiting for a search warrant, Jennings flushed the cocaine. The charges were later dropped and Jennings was released. The episode was recounted in Jennings's song "Don't You Think This Outlaw Bit's Done Got Outta Hand?" During the early 1980s, his cocaine addiction intensified. Jennings claimed to have spent $1,500 daily to satisfy his addiction, draining his personal finances and leaving him bankrupt with debt of up to $2.5 million. Though he insisted on repaying the debt and did additional tours to earn the funds, his work became less focused and his tours deteriorated. Jennings decided to quit his addictions, leased a home in the Phoenix, Arizona, area and spent a month detoxing himself, intending to start using cocaine again in a more controlled fashion afterward. In 1984 he quit cocaine. By Jennings's own admission in interviews, his son, Shooter Jennings, was the main inspiration to quit permanently. Illness and death edit: Jennings's health had been deteriorating for years before his death. Jennings quit cocaine in 1984 and his habit of smoking six packs of cigarettes daily in 1988. In 1988 he underwent heart bypass surgery. By 2000 his diabetes worsened, and the pain reduced his mobility, forcing Jennings to end most touring. Later the same year he underwent surgery to improve his leg circulation. In December 2001 his left foot was amputated at a hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. On February 13, 2002, Jennings died in his sleep of diabetic complications in Chandler, Arizona. He was buried in the Mesa City Cemetery, in Mesa, Arizona. At the funeral ceremony, on February 15, Colter sang "Storms Never Last" for the attendees, who included Jennings's close friends and fellow musicians. Legacy edit: Between 1966 and 1995, 54 Jennings albums charted, with 11 reaching number one. Meanwhile between 1965 and 1991, 96 singles charted, with 16 number ones. In October 2001, Jennings was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. In one final act of defiance, he did not attend the ceremony and opted instead to send son Buddy Dean Jennings. On July 6, 2006, Jennings was inducted to Hollywood's Rock Wall in Hollywood, California. On June 20, 2007, Jennings was posthumously awarded the Cliffie Stone Pioneer Award by the Academy of Country Music. Jennings's music had a major influence on several neotraditionalist and alternative country artists, including Hank Williams Jr.,The Marshall Tucker Band,Travis Tritt, Steve Earle, John Anderson, his son, Shooter Jennings and Hank Williams III. In 2008, the first posthumous album by Jennings, Waylon Forever, was released. The album consisted of songs recorded with his son Shooter when he was 16. In 2012 Waylon: The Music Inside a three-volume project, consisting in covers of Jennings's songs by different artists was released. The same year, it was announced for September the release of Goin' Down Rockin': The Last Recordings, a set of 12 songs recorded by Jennings and bassist Robby Turner before his death in 2002. Jennings's family was reluctant to release any new material because they did not feel comfortable at the time. The songs only featured Jennings and Turner on the bass, while further accompaniment would be added later. Ten years after, Turner completed the recordings with the help of former Waylors. The Jennings family approved the release despite the launch of a new business focused on his state. Shooter Jennings arranged deals for a clothing line, while also launching a renewed website, and started talks with different producers about the making of a biopic.