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Steppenwolf

Steppenwolf is a Canadian-Americanrock group that was prominent in the late 1960s. The group was formed in 1967 in Los Angeles by vocalist John Kay, guitarist Michael Monarch, bassist Rushton Moreve, keyboardist Goldy McJohn and drummer Jerry Edmonton after the dissolution of Toronto group The Sparrows, formed by John Kay in the early 60s, of which only Moreve was not a member. The band has sold more than 25 million records worldwide, releasing eight gold albums and twelve Billboard Hot 100 singles of which six were Top 40 hits, including three Top 10 successes: "Born to Be Wild", "Magic Carpet Ride", and "Rock Me". Steppenwolf enjoyed worldwide success from 1968 to 1974, but clashing personalities led to the end of the core lineup. Today, frontman John Kay is the only original member left, having served as lead singer since 1967. History edit: Steppenwolf edit: The name-change from Sparrow to Steppenwolf was suggested to John Kay by Gabriel Mekler, being inspired by Hermann Hesse's novel of the same name. Steppenwolf's first two singles were "A Girl I Knew" and "Sookie Sookie". The band finally rocketed to worldwide fame after their third single "Born to Be Wild" was released in 1968, as well as their version of Hoyt Axton's "The Pusher" and were prominently used in the 1969 cult film Easy Rider (both titles originally had been released on the band's debut album). In the movie, "The Pusher" accompanies a drug deal, and Peter Fonda stuffing dollar bills into his Stars & Stripes-clad fuel tank, after which "Born to Be Wild" is heard in the opening credits, with Fonda and Dennis Hopper riding their Harley choppers through the American West. The song, which has been closely associated with motorcycles ever since, introduced to rock lyrics the signature term "heavy metal" (though not about a kind of music, but about a motorcycle: "I like smoke and lightning, heavy metal thunder, racin' with the wind..."). Written by Dennis Edmonton, who had begun using the pen name Mars Bonfire, the song had already reached No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 in August 1968. It sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc. The group's following albums had several more hit singles, including "Magic Carpet Ride" (which reached No. 3) from Steppenwolf The Second and "Rock Me Baby" (with its bridge lasting 1:06, which reached No. 10) from At Your Birthday Party. It also sold in excess of one million units.Monster, which questioned US policy of the Nixon era, and Steppenwolf 7 were the band's most political albums, which included the song "Snowblind Friend", another Axton-penned song, about the era and attitudes of drugs and its problems. Other hits included Hey Lawdy Mama and Willie Dixon's Hootchie Kootchie Man. There were several changes in the group's personnel after the first few years. Moreve was fired from the group in 1968 for missing gigs after he became afraid to return to Los Angeles, convinced that it was going to be leveled by an earthquake and fall into the sea. Rob Black filled in for Moreve until former fellow-Sparrow Nick St. Nicholas came aboard. Monarch quit after disagreements with Kay the next year year and was replaced by Larry Byrom, who'd been in TIME with St. Nicholas. St. Nicholas' tenure with the group proved to be brief and he was let go in 1970 after incurring Kay's wrath by showing up onstage in a bunny suit, and playing his bass loudly and out of tune. The above tales were related by Kay in his 1994 autobiography Magic Carpet Ride (co-written with Canadian author John Einarson). George Biondo was then recruited and guitarist Kent Henry replaced Byrom in 1971. The band broke up in 1972 following the release of another political concept album, For Ladies Only, and Kay went on to an inconsistent solo career, scoring a minor solo hit in 1972 with "I'm Movin' On" from his album Forgotten Songs and Unsung Heroes. Kay toured Europe as The John Kay Band in 1972 with Steppenwolf also on the bill, Kay fronting both groups. Reunion edit: Steppenwolf reformed in 1974 with its core lineup of Kay, Edmonton and McJohn, along with longtime bassist Biondo and newcomer Bobby Cochran, Eddie Cochran's nephew. The band signed with Mums Records in retaliation for what Kay perceived as a lack of support by Dunhill Records for his solo album. Their first reunion album was Slow Flux which included their last Top 40 hit, "Straight Shootin' Woman". In February 1975 McJohn was dismissed for what Kay described as a decline in the quality of his performances as well as his epilepsy-induced erratic behavior. McJohn was replaced by Andy Chapin on Hour of the Wolf in 1975, though McJohn appeared in artwork for the single to Caroline (Are You Ready) and claims that his keyboard work can be heard on many of the album's tracks. After the album peaked at No. 155, the band attempted to break up, but the label, now having been absorbed by Epic Records, insisted Steppenwolf record one more album to satisfy their contractual obligations. The ensuing album, Skullduggery (1976), featuring Wayne Cook on keyboards, was released without a tour to support it and Steppenwolf disbanded a second time. New Steppenwolf edit: From 1977 until 1980, a variety of Steppenwolfs were put out on the road by concert promoter Steve Green. Another promoter, David Pesnell, reportedly acted as manager for an incarnation featuring former members Nick St. Nicholas, Goldy McJohn and Kent Henry, and new lead singer, Tom Pagan. Plans for a new album circulated. A new studio album, produced by Phil Spector, was attempted in 1978, but abandoned due to Pesnell and Spector's hateful relationship. The relationship ended with a well-documented fist fight between the two at the Whisky a Go Go in which Pesnell sent Spector to the hospital, where he stayed for three nights. Assault charges were dropped against Pesnell after the Los Angeles Police Department determined Spector had instigated the fight. Another Wolf band, launched in the summer of 1978, featured lead vocalist Bob Simpson, and original members Goldy McJohn and Rushton Moreve, with Kent Henry. This version recorded new tracks for a proposed album which was never released. A splinter Wolf band (which featured no members from any Steppenwolf band fronted by John Kay) appeared around the same time with lead vocalist Don Coenen. That line-up included keyboardist Geoff Emery and guitarist Tony Flynn. Another album, The Night Of The Wolf, was said to have been recorded and produced by Pesnell in 1979 with lead vocalist Bob Simpson, featuring such songs as "Night of the Wolf" and "I Don't Want To Lose You," and "Randy's Rodeo." A concert tour in the U.S., Canada and Europe was promoted by Pesnell with the opening acts including Iron Butterfly. The St. Nicholas/McJohn grouping eventually disbanded due to exhaustion and heavy drug use by St. Nicholas, Goldy McJohn and drummer Frankie Banali. St. Nicholas formed yet another version and went back out on the road. This grouping included lead singer Tommy Holland, lead guitarist Ruben DeFuentes, Emery, and future Keel/W.A.S.P./L.A. Guns drummer Steve Riley. The retooled band returned to the studio to revamp tracks for the new album, but it was never released. McJohn also eventually headed back out himself with another lineup that first featured Peter Graw on lead vocals, then another line-up that featured lead vocalist Nick Graham and sometimes included Kent Henry, who had just departed a touring Wolf band that featured Tim West on vocals. The Graham/McJohn/Henry version packaged an entire new album that was blocked from release. Frankie Banali later went on to join Quiet Riot. After hearing of these other Steppenwolf incarnations, John Kay was furious, since an original agreement among the band members in the early 1970s stated that anyone leaving forfeited any rights on the group's name, while the last original members standing when the group disbanded (Kay and Jerry Edmonton) would have exclusive claims on the name hereafter. At their lawyers' advice, Kay and Edmonton agreed to license the name to the others. This licensing agreement stated that McJohn and St. Nicholas would have to give up their Steppenwolf royalties forever to go forward. They both agreed. Eventually, this agreement was terminated after promised fees were not paid to Kay and Edmonton. Kay then took to the road in 1980 with a new line-up as John Kay and Steppenwolf. John Kay and Steppenwolf edit: Kay had a couple of meetings with David Pesnell (after his release from rehabilitation for his drinking and drug problems), about management, concert promotions and producing a new album for the band. Pesnell wanted to produce an album featuring new songs on Side A, by the reformed band Three Dog Night and with Side B of the album featuring songs by Steppenwolf. The album's working name was "Back to Back", a play on each band having a side of the album and the fact the bands were back together again. Pesnell's concept was simple: each band would record four new songs, with a fifth song on each side featuring a medley of the band's past songs. This would give the Pesnell-produced album a double release of singles to support a concert tour featuring the two bands. Even though both bands liked the concept of the album and tour, the arguments included who would be Side A and Side B and which of the two would headline the upcoming concert tour. The reformed John Kay and Steppenwolf line-up featured John Kay, Mike Palmer (guitars, backing vocals), Steve Palmer (drums, backing vocals), Danny Ironstone (keyboards, backing vocals) and Kurtis Teel on bass. The Palmer brothers had played in a group called Tall Water and had also been involved with Kay in his solo career in the late 70s. Teel was replaced by Chad Peery and Ironstone by Brett Tuggle by 1981 and the new grouping put out Live in London overseas. Tuggle was then displaced by Michael Wilk and a new studio album, Wolf Tracks, was released in 1982 on the small Attic (Nautilus in the U.S.) record label. Bassist Welton Gite, who appeared on this album, left shortly after its completion and was replaced by Gary Link. Another album, Paradox, followed in 1984. In December 1984, the band as it was disbanded and Kay and Wilk decided to continue on in early 1985 with a pared-down quartet that comprised: Kay, Wilk, Ron Hurst (drums, backing vocals) and Rocket Ritchotte (guitars, backing vocals). Wilk would also handle bass duties from his keyboards from here on. This line-up released Rock N' Roll Rebels (1987) and Rise & Shine (1990). Both of these were on the Qwil and I.R.S. Records imprints, respectively. Ritchotte had departed temporarily in 1989 to be replaced by Les Dudek and then Steve Fister, but then returned in 1990 for three more years. Fister (ex-Iron Butterfly) came back in late 1993, but turned guitar duties over to Danny Johnson (formerly of Derringer, Rod Stewart and others) in 1996. As the band was named after the novel Der Steppenwolf by German author Hermann Hesse, who was born in the Black Forest town of Calw, the city invited them to come over and play in the International Hermann-Hesse-Festival 2002, along with other bands inspired by Hesse, such as Anyone's Daughter. The concert drew considerable media coverage, with Kay's fluent German stunning those who did not know beforehand about his growing up in Germany. The band performed its 'farewell concert' on October 6, 2007 at Ripken Stadium in Aberdeen, Maryland, featuring Kay, longtime keyboardist Michael Wilk, drummer Ron Hurst, and guitarist Danny Johnson. A 2007 newsletter from Kay's Wolfpack fanclub stated there would be some remastering of the band's albums throughout 2007 and 2008. Since the group's official retirement, they have continued to play a limited number of shows each year with the 2007 grouping. In 2009, bassist Gary Link rejoined them. Personnel edit: Further information: List of Steppenwolf band members John Kay - Lead vocals, rhythm guitar (1963-1972; 1974-1977; 1980-present), Michael Wilk - keyboards (1982-present), Gary Link - bass guitar (1982-1984; 2009-present), Ron Hurst - drums (1984-present), Danny Johnson - lead guitar, backing vocals (1996-present)

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