The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is the best known orchestra in Austria and one of the best ensembles in the world. Its home base is the world-famous Musikverein. The members of the orchestra are chosen from the Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera. The orchestra can trace its origins back to 1842, when Otto Nicolai formed what he called a "Philharmonic Academy"; it was an orchestra which was fully independent, and which took all its decisions by a democratic vote of all its members. These are principles the orchestra still holds today. Since 1933, the orchestra has had no one principal conductor, but instead has a number of guest conductors. These have included almost a great number of the world's best known conductors, including Richard Strauss, Karl Böhm, Herbert von Karajan, Georg Solti, Erich Kleiber, Carlos Kleiber, Leonard Bernstein, and Claudio Abbado.